Friday, May 22, 2020
The competency Ã¢â¬Å"apply the core functions of assessment, policy development, and assurance in the analysis of public health problems and their solutionsÃ¢â¬ was met through reading chapter 5 in Public Health: What it is and How it Works, along with completing a discussion question on applying the essential public health services to gun violence in Chicago and by completing a group project where I had to describe substance abuse in terms of the ten essential public health services. By reading the book I learned what the core functions and essential public health services were. Turnock (2011 p. 224) describes assessment as public healthÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to provide information to the public about the communities health and wellness, whichÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦226). This competency was put into action by completing two assignments that were related to determining the essential public health services. The first assignment was watching a video about gun violence in Chicago and determining how many of the essential public health services were being met at the time. In this particular video I was able to identify four essential public health services that were covered. The first services I identified was Ã¢â¬Å"mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems (Turnock, 2011 p. 226) which in the video was being represented by the ChicagoÃ¢â¬â¢s trauma united and Northwestern HospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s new rule that when a patient comes in who has been shot they call the community based violence advocates to help with the victim (Brackett, 2013). The next service I identified was Ã¢â¬Å"inform, educate, and empower people about health issuesÃ¢â¬ (Turnock, 2011 p. 226) which was being met by the Harper High SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Becoming A M an (BAM) program that teaches high risk students about how they can control their dangerous behaviors and actions to help them prevent gun violence (Brackett, 2013). The next service I found in the video was Ã¢â¬Å"research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problemsÃ¢â¬ (Turnock, 2011 p. 226) which was being addressed by President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s
Sunday, May 10, 2020
This, in turn, leads to an increase in the effectiveness and productivity of the workers. MacVille also protects the rights of workers employed in its supply chain. The company urges its suppliers to adhere to the minimum wage rate regulations and refrain from employing child labor (Manning et al, 2006). Sustainable Development In its quest for higher profits, MacVille has not forgotten the importance of indulging in sustainable business practices. MacVille is a member of the Fairtrade and provides decent working conditions, fair prices and terms of trade to farmers and workers engaged in coffee farms (Curtis, 2005). The company actively supports environmental NGO Rainforest Alliance which trains farmers to indulge in sustainable farming practices including the optimum use of water resources (Whelan, 2004). The other environmental leadership practices employed by MacVille include conservation of energy and preservation of biodiversity. Meeting Minutes with the Consultant Date: May 21, 2014 Venue: Conference Hall 2, MacVille Headquarters, Brisbane Members Present: Vice President, Strategy Development; Senior Manager, Business Development and functional heads of marketing, HR and finance. Proceedings The meeting was called to review the current mission and vision of the company and to assess whether the current business practices of MacVille are in line with the strategic intent. Point 1 The consultant was of the opinion that MacVilleÃ¢â¬â¢s values and business practices support the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s present mission and vision. We will write a custom essay sample on Develop and implement strategic plan or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The company has worked assiduously to become a recognized brand especially in the domestic market. Point 2 The members decided that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission should be broadened. It was also decided that MacVille should pursue a more ambitious vision. Point 3 In the wake of increasing competition, the company needs to embrace innovation in all facets of business especially in product development and marketing. Point 4 MacVille should increase its research and development (R&D) expenditure which will help it to manufacture innovative, customer friendly products. Point 5 The adoption of liberalization and globalization policies by many countries of the world has opened up numerous growth opportunities for foreign companies. MacVille needs to look at strategic alliances and partnerships to increase its international footprint. At the same time, it needs to penetrate further in the home market and attain leadership position. Point 6 MacVille will have to increase its operational efficiency to reduce costs.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Official poverty statistics in the Philippines are part of the System of Designated Statistics instituted and implemented by the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) pursuant to Executive Order No. 352 signed on 01 July 1996. Based on policies approved by the NSCB, official poverty statistics consist of the food and poverty thresholds, the subsistence and poverty incidence, the income gap, the poverty gap, and the severity of poverty index. We will write a custom essay sample on Primary Reasons of Poverty of the Philippines or any similar topic only for you Order Now The estimates of subsistence and poverty incidence are expressed in terms of proportion of families and of the population. Prior to 2000, the income gap, poverty gap and the severity of poverty index as well as the annual food and poverty thresholds were not part of the official poverty statistics. Under NSCB Board Resolution No. 9 Series of 2000, these statistics were added to the official poverty statistics designated to the NSCB under E. O. 352. Moreover, prior to 2003, the official poverty statistics were being generated only at the national and regional levels with urban-rural disaggregation. In response to user need for provincial disaggregation of poverty statistics, NSCB Resolution No.Ã 1 Series of 2003 was passed on 15 January 2003, approving a methodology for the compilation of official poverty statistics. This methodology underwent a series of discussions thru workshops, interagency meetings and usersÃ¢â¬â¢ fora before it was approved by the NSCB. The initial efforts of the NSCB for the development of the methodology were undertaken in 1999 as part of the NSCB involvement in the Ã¢â¬Å"Development of an Integrated Poverty Monitoring and Indicator System ProjectÃ¢â¬ , a module of the UNDP-assisted project Ã¢â¬Å"Strengthening Institutional Mechanisms for the Convergence of Poverty Alleviation Efforts, Phase IÃ¢â¬ , which was implemented by NEDA. Except for the food and poverty thresholds that are estimated annually, the other official poverty statistics are estimated every three years after the results of the Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES) of the National Statistics Office (NSO) have become available. The FIES is a nationwide survey of households undertaken to gather data on the income and expenditures of Filipino families. How to cite Primary Reasons of Poverty of the Philippines, Papers
Thursday, April 30, 2020
Western Film Since the beginning of cinema in the United States, there has been on genre of film which has been explicitly American the Western. Though touched on by films in other countries, the Western film has been used for decades as the quintessential view into American ideals and lifestyles. Though this genre has not changed much in since its inception, stylistically, it has changed in its way of expressing and covering issues of American culture.Many clichs have arisen out of the western film. The good guys wore white clothes. The bad guys wore black clothes. The lawmen were always on the side of truth and justice and often portrayed as immensely stoic if not immortal. Other clichs of the genre include the savagery of the Native Americans and the bravery, and justice displayed by every man in the position of right IE. Marshals, military men or even the unaffiliated heroes such as the Lone Ranger. Need essay sample on "Western Film" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed One of the first movies to begin to break from this traditional view of the American west was the film High Noon. In this 1952 film, town marshal Will Kane, played by Gary Cooper, is told that a man from his past is returning to town with the intention of killing him for putting the man in prison. Ian MacDonalds Frank Miller is seeking revenge, and returning on the noon train.Though this motif was not original to the film, the manner of its characterization was. Marshal Kanes first response to the news of Frank Millers return is to leave town and avoid the fight. Though his machismo will not allow for a cowardly escape, the film does illustrate the fear that plagues Coopers character. The dread that Kane feels throughout the film is compounded by the lack of support he receives from the townspeople. Despite being a beloved lawman for sometime the movie takes place on the day of his retirement the entirety of the town recommends that Kane flee for his life rather than face possible death as the hands of Miller. Throughout the film Kane attempts to garner, at least, moral support for his pending conflict; however he finds none not even from his wife, who also tells him to flee. Howard Burton wrote, in 1953, that High Noon was the return of the story of everyman as well as the final maturing of the western film as a genre. In Burtons explication of the film, Kane is everyman. Burton describes everyman as weak. He tries desperately to avoid meeting death, even attempting to delay death [} (Burton 83) The film, however, does not stray too far from the old ideal of the stoic hero, as Kane does face Miller. However, a change is noticed, as the hero acknowledges his mortality, as well as his ability to lose it. This break from the norm would ripple throughout the decades and eventually create a near-complete paradigm shift within the genre. The next film that illustrates a shift away from the standards of the western is The Searchers. Released in 1956, this film would be praised as one of the greatest films of all time. This is mainly due to the affect the film had on the genre of the western. In this film, John Wayne nearly a western film clich himself is searching for a tribe of Indians who killed his family and kidnapped his niece. Waynes character, Ethan Edwards, is joined by his nephew who happens to be half-Indian himself. This not only causes tension between the characters, as Edwards hates all Indians because of the loss of his family, but also creates an opportunity for the western film genre to see a character though only half Indian in a sympathetic light. The depth of the racial crossover increases as the film progresses. In the film; [A] white woman is adopted and raised red society, marries a red man; (part) red man is adopted and raised by white society, marries a white woman. This parallel poses an exchange between red and white tribes. (Henderson 13) Because of this crossover, both sides of the racial issue are illustrated, and explained. This motif offers a commentary on the prejudice and hypocrisy of the white American culture because it was ok for the white family to take the native child, but not for the reciprocal to occur. Another example of the western leaving changing the normal expectations of the genre occurred in the film, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance. In this film, James Stewart is a Senator who returns to the town from which his career began in order to attend the funeral of a drifter, played by John Wayne. throughout the film, Stewart is acknowledged as the man who killed the areas most notorious outlaw, Liberty Valance. There are several subtle details of this film which make a prime example of the shift in Americas western film. First, and most obvious, the prime villain is called Liberty creating a tension between good and evil that most films had not dared before 1962. The hero, in opposition to this, is named Ransom which is also in conflict with the nature of good versus evil. Next, the film spends the majority of its time building up the character of Ransom Stoddard as an all-around hero archetype. Ransom teaches the townspeople to read and write, as well as bringing order to the town through his law office.John Waynes character, Tom Doniphon is portrayed as a shiftless tough guy with few redeeming moral virtues. There is conflict between Stoddard and Doniphon for the affections of Vera Miles character Hallie who eventually will marry Stoddard and accompany him to Doniphons funeral. As the story progresses, conflicts arise with the character of Liberty Valance. These conflicts lead to a gun fight, after which, Valance is dead; and Stoddard is hailed as his killer. The acclaim that Stoddard receives from the killing of Liberty Valance propels his political career and is the driving force behind his lifes success. The shift in the movie comes in the end as Stoddard tells the story of the death of Liberty Valance to a reporter. Through his exposition, Stoddard eventually reveals that it was actually Doniphon who killed Valance, but took no credit. It was then the guilt created by the success of his title, that brought Stoddard back to his hometown. Because Stoddard did not come forward sooner, Doniphon died penniless and alone. This revealed truth from Stoddard, shows that the success he enjoyed after leaving this town and being elected to the US Senate was based on a lie. This illustration of impropriety was rare in films of the era. To say that those who were controlling the highest offices of government were not as they claimed was a strong departure from the purity of government that most films portrayed. The film, The Good, The Bad and The Ugly, though filmed primarily in Spain, and directed by an Italian director, still illustrates a strong paradigm shift in the western dogma. Drawn together by the promise of treasure and riches, three veterans of the Civil War join forces. The conflict of personalities in this film is another example of this shift in western cinema.Because they are forced to work together, the lines of good and evil are blurred by greed. This film depicts the characters in ways that illustrate their characters; good, bad, ugly (in deed more than looks). However, because of their necessity for cooperation, their characters are forced to subjugate their expectations to some degree.By 1990, the western had nearly been lost as a genre however, the movie Dances with Wolves revived the concept. It also made the strongest divergence from the western of old. This film illustrated many juxtaposed characterizations from the suicidal and insane Lieutenant commander, to the very personal and sympathetic view of the Lakota tribe. Dances with Wolves also paints a picture of the American cavalry in a very unflattering, and prejudicial light. The actions of the soldiers in the western frontier lands are shown as extremely violent and immoral. They soldiers refuse to find the story behind why a praised and decorated lieutenant is found in close association with the Lakota. Instead, they instantly deem him a traitor based solely on his dress and arrest him.The film also shows a deep understanding of the social unit of the Lakota of the time. This, in itself, is a departure from class forms of the American western, which still to this day often portray the Native American only as a savage. This film, however, delves into the culture itself - in a way that allows the viewer to learn of the people along with the character of John Dunbar. Though not directly, the film also addresses the continuing conflict between the modern American culture, and that of the Native American cultures. The movie ends without a strong conclusion to the story of John Dunbar. he is still pursued by the Calvary, and seen as a traitor and deserter. The trials of the Lakota people are not resolved as they have not been in reality. There is also a strong sense of tension at the end of the film, between John Dunbar and the lead warrior of the Lakota tribe Wind in his hair. Dances with Wolves also touches on relationship between an individual and his or her country. Though John Dunbar never acts against the best interests of the United States, he is labeled a traitor due to his style of dress when seen by the returning soldiers. This calls into question several aspects of American society.First, the concept of innocent until proven guilty which is the basis for the American judicial system is completely ignored in the arrest of John Dunbar. Next comes the idea of patriotism. John Dunbar is arguably the most patriotic character in the film; however he is eventually arrested and treated as the worst type of criminal. Finally, there is the question of loyalty. John Dunbar is portrayed as a fine example of loyal soldier and is initially rewarded with his choice of assignments. The use of cinema to comment on society is in no way a new concept - the plays of ancient Greece did the same, as did the plays of Shakespeare. However, for the majority of Americans, film is the primary source of social commentary and the most American form of that commentary is the western. Because of its perception of being an entirely American genre, these types of films can hold a strong place in the minds of their audience. The directors of these types of films understand this, of course, and use that to their advantage. Though not all directors set out to create a film which has some, deep, underlying message about the state of affairs in the United States, many western films contained such nuances, nonetheless. World War II, Viet Nam, the Civil Rights Movement and the counter culture movements of the 60s and 70s were all very important to the development of the current American identity. It is, therefore, no surprise that these changes in social order were echoed in the changes of American cinema. These eras also brought about the first questionings of authority, and shifting away from the blind trust that Americans had in the government, and society as a whole this was also mirrored in the American western. The social upheaval that occurred in the United States during the 1940s, 50s, 60s and into the 90s, marked drastic changes in both social stratification as well as American identity. WORKS CITED High Noon. dir. Fred Zinnemann. starring Gary Cooper, Thomas Mitchell, Lloyd Bridges. 1952. United Artists. The Searchers. dir. John Ford. starring; John Wayne, Jeffery Hunter, Vera Miles. 1956. Warner Bros. The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance. dir. John Ford. starring; John Wayne, James Stewart, Vera Miles. 1962. Paramount Studios. The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. dir. Sergio Leone. starring; Eli Wallach, Clint Eastwood, Lee Van Cleef. 1966. United Artists. Dances with Wolves. dir. Kevin Costner. starring; Kevin Costner, Mary McDonnell, Graham Greene. 1990. MGM/UA Entertainment. Henderson, Brian. The Searchers: An American Dilemma. Film Quarterly. Vol. 34, No. 2. 1980. p/ 9-23. Burton, Howard A. High Noon: Everyman Rides Again. The Quarterly of Film Radio and Television. Vol. 8, No. 1. 1953. p. 80-86.
Saturday, March 21, 2020
Due process is best defined in one word-fairness. Throughout the history of the United States, its constitutions, statues and case law have provided standards for fair treatment of citizens by federal, state and local governments. These standards are known as due process. Due process of law is administered through courts of justice in accordance with established and sanctioned legal principles and procedures, and the safeguards for the protection of individual rights. When or if at anytime a person is treated unfairly by the government, the criminal justice system (to include the courts), that person is said to have been deprived of or denied his/her due process. it is often referred to in such terms as the "law of the land" and "legal judgement of his peers." The first time these expressions were used in the sense of due process was in the great charter of English liberty, the Magna Carter. In the United States, the phrase due process first appears in the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified December 15, 1791. the amendment refers specifically to federal and not state actions, therefore another amendment was necessary to include the states. this was accomplished by the 14th Amendment, ratified July 9, 1868. As a result of the ratification, it was established at both federal and state levels that no person "shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law." Recently, the United States Supreme Court has placed emphasis on procedural safeguards in the administration of criminal justice in federal and state cours. As determined by custom and law, due process has become a guarantee of civil as well as criminal rights. Through interpretation of the law, due process has grown to include, among other things, provision for ensuring an accused person a fair and public trial before a competent tribunal, the right to be present at the trial, and the right ot be heard in his/her own defe... Free Essays on Due Process Free Essays on Due Process The phrase ''due process of law'' does not necessarily imply a proceeding in a court or a plenary suit and trial by jury in every case where personal or property rights are involved. 25 ''In all cases, that kind of procedure is due process of law which is suitable and proper to the nature of the case, and sanctioned by the established customs and usages of the courts.'' 26 What is unfair in one situation may be fair in another. 27 ''The precise nature of the interest that has been adversely affected, the manner in which this was done, the reasons for doing it, the available alternatives to the procedure that was followed, the protection implicit in the office of the functionary whose conduct is challenged, the balance of hurt complained of and good accomplishedthese are some of the considerations that must enter into the judicial judgment.'' 28 n. a fundamental principle of fairness in all legal matters, both civil and criminal, especially in the courts. All legal procedures set by statute and court practice, including notice of rights, must be followed for each individual so that no prejudicial or unequal treatment will result. While somewhat indefinite, the term can be gauged by its aim to safeguard both private and public rights against unfairness. The universal guarantee of due process is in the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which provides "No person shallÃ¢â¬ ¦be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law," and is applied to all states by the 14th Amendment. From this basic principle flows many legal decisions determining both procedural and substantive rights.... Free Essays on Due Process Due process is best defined in one word-fairness. Throughout the history of the United States, its constitutions, statues and case law have provided standards for fair treatment of citizens by federal, state and local governments. These standards are known as due process. Due process of law is administered through courts of justice in accordance with established and sanctioned legal principles and procedures, and the safeguards for the protection of individual rights. When or if at anytime a person is treated unfairly by the government, the criminal justice system (to include the courts), that person is said to have been deprived of or denied his/her due process. it is often referred to in such terms as the "law of the land" and "legal judgement of his peers." The first time these expressions were used in the sense of due process was in the great charter of English liberty, the Magna Carter. In the United States, the phrase due process first appears in the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified December 15, 1791. the amendment refers specifically to federal and not state actions, therefore another amendment was necessary to include the states. this was accomplished by the 14th Amendment, ratified July 9, 1868. As a result of the ratification, it was established at both federal and state levels that no person "shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law." Recently, the United States Supreme Court has placed emphasis on procedural safeguards in the administration of criminal justice in federal and state cours. As determined by custom and law, due process has become a guarantee of civil as well as criminal rights. Through interpretation of the law, due process has grown to include, among other things, provision for ensuring an accused person a fair and public trial before a competent tribunal, the right to be present at the trial, and the right ot be heard in his/her own defe...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Island of Stability - Discovering Superheavy Elements The island of stability is that wondrous place where heavy isotopes of elements stick around long enough to be studied and used. The island is located within a sea of radioisotopes that decay into daughter nuclei so quickly its difficult for scientists to prove the element existed, much less use the isotope for a practical application. Key Takeaways: Island of Stability The island of stability refers to a region of the periodic table consisting of super-heavy radioactive elements that have at least one isotope with a relatively long half-life.The nuclear shell model is used to predict the location of the islands, based on maximizing the binding energy between protons and neutrons.Isotopes on the island are believed to have magic numbers of protons and neutrons that allow them to maintain some stability.Element 126, should it ever be produced, is believed to have an isotope with a long enough half-life that it can be studied and potentially used. History of the Island Glenn T. Seaborg coined the phrase island of stability in the late 1960s. Using the nuclear shell model, he proposed filling the energy levels of a given shell with the optimal number of protons and neutrons would maximize binding energy per nucleon, permitting that particular isotope to have a longer half-life than other isotopes, which did not have filled shells. Isotopes that fill nuclear shells possess what are called magic numbers of protons and neutrons. Finding the Island of Stability The location of the island of stability is predicted based on known isotope half-lives and predicted half-lives for elements that have not been observed, based on calculations relying on the elements behaving like those above them on the periodic table (congeners) and obeying equations that account for relativistic effects. The proof that the island of stability concept is sound came when physicists were synthesizing element 117. Although the isotope of 117 decayed very quickly, one of the products of its decay chain was an isotope of lawrencium that had never been observed before. This isotope, lawrencium-266, displayed a half-life of 11 hours, which is extraordinarily long for an atom of such a heavy element. Previously known isotopes of lawrencium had fewer neutrons and were much less stable. Lawrencium-266 has 103 protons and 163 neutrons, hinting at as-yet-undiscovered magic numbers that may be used to form new elements. Which configurations might possess magic numbers? The answer depends who you ask, because its a matter of calculation and theres not standard set of equations. Some scientists suggest there might be an island of stability around 108, 110, or 114 protons and 184 neutrons. Others suggest a spherical nucleus with 184 neutrons, but 114, 120, or 126 protons might work best. Unbihexium-310 (element 126) is doubly magic because its proton number (126) and neutron number (184) are both magic number. However you roll the magic dice, data obtained from the synthesis of elements 116, 117, and 118 point toward increasing half-life as the neutron number approached 184. Some researchers believe the best island of stability might exists at much larger atomic numbers, like around element number 164 (164 protons). Theorists are investigating the region where Z 106 to 108 and N is around 160-164, which appears sufficiently stable with respect to beta decay and fission. Making New Elements from the Island of Stability Although scientists might be able to form new stable isotopes of known elements, we dont have the technology to go much past 120 (work which is currently underway). Its likely a new particle accelerator will need to be constructed that would be capable of focusing onto a target with greater energy. Well also need to learn to make larger amounts of known heavy nuclides to serve as targets for making these new elements. New Atomic Nucleus Shapes The usual atomic nucleus resembles a solid ball of protons and neutrons, but atoms of elements on the island of stability may take new shapes. One possibility would be a bubble-shaped or hollow nucleus, with the protons and neutrons forming a sort of shell. Its hard to even imagine how such a configuration might affect the properties of the isotope. One thing is certain, though... there are new elements yet to be discovered, so the periodic table of the future will look very different from the one we use today.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Community - Essay Example Attendance is described as good as the school district has partnered with a truancy solution company and as such has launched a campaign to encourage students to attend school regularly. As a result, school attendance has improved by 10%. The latest report reflects that daily attendance is at just over 94%. District Setting Administration For administrative purposes the school district is divided into four categories: elementary schools, middle schools, high schools and special schools. There are 68 elementary schools, 18 middle schools, 15 high schools and 8 special schools. Each school is run by a principal who reports to the Superintendent for the district. The superintendent is assisted by a deputy superintendent for administration, a deputy superintendent for curriculum and instruction and a deputy superintendent for business and financial services. The superintendent and the various deputy superintendents coordinate all aspects of the administration of the school with the princ ipals. Student Data Enrolment for the 2010-2011 academic year is 94, 702. The district accepts students from the age of 4 for pre-kindergarten. Once students are registered at an elementary school, registration is no longer necessary. Students come from diverse ethnic and social backgrounds. However, 67% of the student body is Hispanic. District Mission The school districtÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to provide an exemplary education with above average educators and an intensive extracurricular program. In addition the school districtÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to foster an environment that is family oriented. In other words, the school district encourages close community between the staff, teachers, administrators, the study body and the families. The school district readily admits that its wants to be the best place in the state for families. Thus its mission is to foster a connection between the schools and parents, business and members of the community generally. This is because the school dis trict takes the position that while the childÃ¢â¬â¢s education is significant for societyÃ¢â¬â¢s future, the family provides the key to learning. As such, parents are not only obligated to be actively involved in the education of the child, but also have an inalienable right to be involved. The school district prides itself on its advanced technology, innovative facilities and highly qualified staff. These factors have made the school district appealing to both staff and families in terms of recruiting students and educators. The school district has a strategic plan which targets the enhancement of its studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic and social achievement. It also endeavors to provide a climate for learning that is safe. This is accomplished by emphasizing the recruitment and retention of exemplary staff, keeping up with modern technology and fostering communications with the external public and fortifying partnerships with the business community. Mission/Philosophy Public Relations The school districtÃ¢â¬â¢s school/community relations mission is guided by the philosophy that the community is a stakeholder in its schools. As such, two-way lines of communication must be open so that the school district operates transparently and the community is therefore fully informed of all issues impacting the operation and success of the school. An informed community is in a more effective position to participate in the school distr